A copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended for rolling.

Edgewise curvature. A lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line.

Hardened, tempered and bright polished extra flat and extra precision rolled. Carbon content 1.25, Chromium .15.

(See Bottle Top Mold)

A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements.

(Chemical symbol C) – Element No. 6 of the periodic system; atomic weight 12.01; has three allotropic modifications, all non-metallic. Carbon is preset in practically all ferrous alloys, and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant metal. Carbon is also an essential compound of the cemented carbides. Its metallurgical use, in the form of coke, for reduction of oxides, is very extensive.

Metals and alloys which are practically free from carbon.

In steel specifications, the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable.

Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels, which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages.

(Cementation) Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids, liquids or gasses. The oldest method of case hardening.

Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heat-treatment, all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy.

(1) A term indicating in the annealed state as “Cast Spring Steel Wire.” (2) In reference to Bright or Polished Strip Steel or Wire, the word cast implies discoloration as a shadow. (3) A term implying a lack of straightness as in a coil set

Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds.

A compound of iron and carbon known as “Iron Carbide,” which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C containing 6.69% of carbon. Hard and brittle, it is the hard constituents of cast iron, and the normal form in which carbon is present in steel. It is magnetizable, but not as readily as ferrite.

Tin Plate with a relatively heavy coating of tin (higher than the “Coke Tin Plate” grades).

(Defect) – Parallel indentations or marks appearing at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals, caused by roll vibrations.

A method for removing seams and surface defects with chisel or gouge so that such defects will not be working into the finished product. Chipping is often employed to remove metal that is excessive but not defective. Removal of defects by gas cutting is known as “deseaming” or “scarfing.”

(Chemical symbol Cr.) – Element No. 24 of the periodic system; atomic weight 52.01. It is of bright silvery color, relatively hard. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation. It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron-base alloy. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making; (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation (2) increases hardenability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures (4) resists abrasions and wear (with high carbon).

Steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements. The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types.

Hardened, tempered and bright polished. 1.25 Carbon content – Chromium .15. Accurate flatness necessary and a high hardness with Rockwell C 51 to 53. Usually sizes are 4 ¾” wide and 6” wide x .004 to .010.

A process for covering one metal with another. Usually the surfaces of fairly thick slabs of two metals are brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling so that a clad composition results. In some instances a thick electroplate may be deposited before rolling.

A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. The bonding may have been accomplished by co-rolling, welding, heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating.

A rolling mill where each of the two working rolls of small diameter is supported by two or more back-up rolls.

(Chemical symbol Co.) Element No. 27 of the periodic system; atomic weight 58.94. A gray magnetic metal of medium hardness; it resists corrosion like nickel, which it resembles closely; melting point 2696°F.; boiling point about 5250°F.; specific gravity 8.9. It is used as the matrix metal in most cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated instead of nickel, the sulfate being used as electrolyte. Its principal function as an alloy in tool steel; it contributes to red hardness by hardening ferrite.

A lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip metals following its coil pattern. A departure from longitudinal flatness. It can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges.

Coiled flat sheet or strip metal – usually in one continuous piece or length.

A process of impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a plane metal surface.

(Hot Dipped Tin Plate) Standard tin plate, with the lightest commercial tin coat, used for food containers, oil canning, etc. A higher grade is the best cokes, with special cokes representing the best of the coke tin variety. For high qualities and heavier coatings, see (Charcoal Tin Plate).

Creases or Ridges appearing in sheets as parallel lines transverse to the direction of rolling and generally extending across the width of the sheet.

A joint between two lengths of metal within a coil – which is not always visible in the cold reduced product.

Metal strip, made from hot-rolled strip, by rolling on cold-reduction mills.

Reduction of metal size, usually by rolling or drawing particularly thickness, while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature of the metal.

Finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled sheet or strip with a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance.

Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal to create strain hardening (work-hardening). Same as cold reduction, except that the working method is limited to rolling. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness, strength, stiffness, ductility and other characteristics known as tempers.

The characteristics of metals that are brittle at ordinary or low temperatures.

A defect produced during casting, causing an area in the metal where two portions of the metal in either a molten or plastic condition have come together but have failed to unite, fuse, or, blend into a solid mass. (See Lamination)

Plastic deformation, such as rolling, hammering, drawing, etc., at a temperature sufficiently low to create strain-hardening (work-hardening). Commonly, the term refers to such deformation at normal temperatures.

(Chemical Symbol Cb) – Element No. 41 of the periodic system. Atomic weight 92.91. It is steel gray in color and brilliant luster. Specific gravity 8.57. Melting point at about 4379°F. It is used mainly in the production of stabilized austenitic chromium-nickel steels, also to reduce the air-hardening characteristics in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type.

A copper-zinc alloy (brass) containing 90% copper and 10% zinc; used for screws, wire, hardware, etc. Although termed “commercial-bronze” it contains no tin. It is somewhat stronger than copper and has equal or better ductility.

(See Finishes)

Normally to a ladle analysis of carbon limited at 0.15 max. A Standard Quality Carbon Steel Sheet.

A casting technique in which the ingot is continuously solidified while it is being poured, and the length is not determined by mold dimensions.

Furnace, in which the material being heated moves steadily through the furnace.

Passing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of pickling and washing tanks.

A series of synchronized rolling mill stands in which coiled flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand) moves in a straight line and is continuously reduced in thickness (not width) at each subsequent pass. The finished strip is recoiled upon leaving the final or finishing pass.

A furnace used for bright annealing into which specially prepared gases are introduced for the purposes of maintaining a neutral atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal and atmosphere takes place.

A furnace in which air is blown through the molten bath of crude metal or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities.

Stresses develop by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling; also those stresses resulting from localized plastic deformation during cooling and retained.

(Chemical symbol Cu) – Element No. 29 of the periodic system, atomic weight 63.57. A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster, highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity; melting point 1981°F.; boiling point 4237°F.; specific gravity 8.94. Universally used in the pure state as sheet, tube, rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements (See Brass and Bronze), as an alloy with other metals.

(See Oscillated Wound Coils)

Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents.

The embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure to a corrosive environment. Such material is usually susceptible to the intergranular type of corrosion attack.

As a defect. Alternate ridges and furrows. A series of deep short waves.

The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the metal.

Temperatures at which internal changes or transformations take place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature.

A temperature range in which an internal change takes place within a metal. Also termed Transformation Range.

The defective ends of a rolled or forged product which are cut off and discarded.

(See Luders Lines) This term also applies to transverse ribs or ripples.

(In rolled or drawn metal) The direction parallel to the axis of the rolls during rolling. The direction at, right angles to the direction of rolling or drawing.

Rolling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal; usually done to increase width.

Increased thickness in the center of metal sheet or strip as compared with thickness at the edge.

A ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and clay, or other refractory materials, and used in the melting of metal. The term is sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron, cast steel or wrought steel.

(1) A physically homogeneous solid, in which the atoms , ions, or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern. (2) A coherent piece of matter, all parts of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atoms; in metals, usually synonymous with “grain” and “crystallite.”

Composed of crystals.

The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions in a crystal lattice. This is what happens when a liquid metal solidifies. (Fatigue, the failure of metals under repeated stresses, is sometimes falsely attributed to crystallization.)

Metallography – (Concerning space lattices) – Body-centered cubic. Refers to crystal structure.

A type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed.

(See Olsen Ductility Test)

Surface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt, followed by quenching.