A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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ACCORDION REED STEEL
Hardened, tempered, polished and blued or yellow flat steel
with dressed edges. Carbon content about 1.00%. Material has
to possess good flatness, uniform hardness and high elasticity.
Brittleness resulting from pickling steel in acid; hydrogen,
formed by the interaction between iron and acid, is partially
absorbed by the metal, causing acid brittleness.
A process of making steel, either Bessemer, open-hearth or
electric, in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory
and for which low phosphorous pig iron is required as this element
is not removed.
The term has no reference to the acidity of the steel. (See
The term as applied to soft or low carbon steels, relates to
slow, gradual changes that take place in properties of steels
after the final treatment. These changes, which bring about a
condition of increased hardness, elastic limit, and tensile strength
with a consequent loss in ductility, occur during the period
in which the steel is at normal temperatures.
Spontaneous change in the physical properties of some metals,
which occurs on standing, at atmospheric temperatures after final
cold working or after a final heat treatment. Frequently synonymous
with the term Age-Hardening.
Cooling of the heated metal, intermediate in rapidity between
slow furnace cooling and quenching, in which the metal is permitted
to stand in the open air.
AIR HARDENING STEEL
Alloy steel which may be hardened by cooling in air from a
temperature above the transformation range. Such steels attain
their martensitic structure without going through the quenching
process. Additions of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and manganese
are effective toward this end.
Steels of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Common and
alloy steels have been numbered in a system essentially the same
as the SAE. The AISI system is more elaborate than the SAE in
that all numbers are preceded by letters: A represents
basic open-hearth alloy steel, B acid Bessemer carbon
steel, C basic open-hearth carbon steel, CB either
acid Bessemer or basic open-hearth carbon steel, E electric
furnace alloy steel.
The common name for a type of clad wrought aluminum products,
such as sheet and wire, with coatings of high-purity aluminum
or an aluminum alloy different from the core alloy in composition.
The coatings are anodic to the core so they protect exposed areas
on the core electrolytically during exposure to corrosive environments.
(Met.) Metal prepared by adding other metals or non-metals
to a basic metal to secure desirable properties.
Steel containing substantial quantities of elements other than
carbon and the commonly-accepted limited amounts of manganese,
sulfur, silicon, and phosphorous. Addition of such alloying elements
is usually for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or
chemical resistance. The metals most commonly used for forming
alloy steels are: nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten,
molybdenum and vanadium. Low Alloy steels are usually
considered to be those containing a total of less than 5% of
such added constituents.
A copper-zinc alloy containing up to 38% of zinc. Used mainly
for cold working.
A copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of
tin in copper. Commercial forms contain 4 or 5% of tin. This
alloy is used in coinage, springs, turbine, blades, etc.
The polymorphic form of iron, stable below 1670°F. has
a body centered cubic lattice, and is magnetic up to 1410° F.
(Chemical symbol Al) Element No. 13 of the periodic system;.
Atomic weight 26.97; silvery white metal of valence 3; melting
point 1220°F.; boiling point approximately 4118°F.; ductile
and malleable; stable against normal atmospheric corrosion, but
attacked by both acids and alkalis. Aluminum is used extensively
in articles requiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical
conductivity, etc. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel
making are; (1) Deoxidizes efficiently (See Aluminum Killed Steel)
(2) Restricts grain growth (by forming dispersed oxides or nitrides)
(3) Alloying element in nitriding steel.
ALUMINUM KILLED STEEL
A steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing agent.
(See Killed Steel.)
A heating and cooling operation implying usually a relatively
slow cooling. Annealing is a comprehensive term. The process
of such a heat treatment may be: to remove stresses; to induce
softness; to alter ductility; toughness; electrical magnetic,
or other physical properties; to refine the crystalline structure;
to remove gases; to produce a definite micro-structure. In annealing,
the temperature of the operation and the rate of cooling depend
upon the material being heat treated and the purpose of the treatment.
ANODIZING (Aluminum Anodic Oxide Coating)
A process of coating aluminum by anodic treatment resulting
in a thin film of aluminum oxide of extreme hardness. A wide
variety of dye colored coatings are possible by impregnation
An aging treatment above room temperature. (See Precipitation
Heat Treatment and compare with natural aging)
Abbreviation for American Society for Testing Material. An
organization for issuing standard specifications on materials,
including metals and alloys.
A trade name for a patented heat treating process that consists
of quenching a ferrous alloy from temperature above the transformation
ranges, in a medium having a rate of heat abstraction sufficiently
high to prevent the formation of high-temperature transformation
products and in maintaining the alloy, until transformation is
complete, at a temperature below that of pearlite formations
and above that of martensite formation.
Phase in certain steels, characterized as a solid solution,
usually off carbon or iron carbide, in the gamma form of iron.
Such steels are known as austenitic. Austenite is
stable only above 1333°F. in a plain carbon steel, but the
presence of certain alloying elements, such as nickel and manganese,
stabilizes the austenitic form, even at normal temperatures.
Steel which, because of the presence of alloying elements,
such as manganese, nickel, chromium, etc., shows stability of
Austenite at normal temperatures.