A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended
Edgewise curvature. A lateral departure of a side
edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line.
Hardened, tempered and bright polished extra flat
and extra precision rolled. Carbon content 1.25, Chromium .15.
(See Bottle Top Mold)
A compound of carbon with one or more metallic
(Chemical symbol C) - Element No. 6 of the periodic
system; atomic weight 12.01; has three allotropic modifications,
all non-metallic. Carbon is preset in practically all ferrous
alloys, and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant
metal. Carbon is also an essential compound of the cemented carbides.
Its metallurgical use, in the form of coke, for reduction of
oxides, is very extensive.
Metals and alloys which are practically free from
In steel specifications, the carbon range is the
difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable.
Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special
or alloy steels, which contain other alloying metals in addition
to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages.
(Cementation) Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base
alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature
below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids,
liquids or gasses. The oldest method of case hardening.
Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable
heat-treatment, all or part of the surface portions of a piece
of iron-base alloy.
(1) A term indicating in the annealed state as Cast
Spring Steel Wire. (2) In reference to Bright
or Polished Strip Steel or Wire, the word cast
implies discoloration as a shadow. (3) A term
implying a lack of straightness as in a coil set.
Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds.
A compound of iron and carbon known as Iron
Carbide, which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C
containing 6.69% of carbon. Hard and brittle, it is the hard
constituents of cast iron, and the normal form in which carbon
is present in steel. It is magnetizable, but not as readily as
Tin Plate with a relatively heavy coating of tin
(higher than the Coke Tin Plate grades).
(Defect) - Parallel indentations or marks appearing
at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and
regular intervals, caused by roll vibrations.
A method for removing seams and surface defects
with chisel or gouge so that such defects will not be working
into the finished product. Chipping is often employed to remove
metal that is excessive but not defective. Removal of defects
by gas cutting is known as deseaming or scarfing.
(Chemical symbol Cr.) - Element No. 24 of the periodic
system; atomic weight 52.01. It is of bright silvery color, relatively
hard. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation.
It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as
an iron-base alloy. Chromium plating has also become a large
outlet for the metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in
steel making; (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation
(2) increases hardenability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures
(4) resists abrasions and wear (with high carbon).
Steel usually made by the electric furnace process
in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements.
The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better
known of the chromium-nickel types.
Hardened, tempered and bright polished. 1.25 Carbon
content - Chromium .15. Accurate flatness necessary and a high
hardness with Rockwell C 51 to 53. Usually sizes are 4 ¾ wide
and 6 wide x .004 to .010.
A process for covering one metal with another.
Usually the surfaces of fairly thick slabs of two metals are
brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling
so that a clad composition results. In some instances a thick
electroplate may be deposited before rolling.
A composite metal containing two or three layers
that have been bonded together. The bonding may have been accomplished
by co-rolling, welding, heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating.
A rolling mill where each of the two working rolls
of small diameter is supported by two or more back-up rolls.
(Chemical symbol Co.) Element No. 27 of the periodic
system; atomic weight 58.94. A gray magnetic metal of medium
hardness; it resists corrosion like nickel, which it resembles
closely; melting point 2696°F.; boiling point about 5250°F.;
specific gravity 8.9. It is used as the matrix metal in most
cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated instead of
nickel, the sulfate being used as electrolyte. Its principal
function as an alloy in tool steel; it contributes to red hardness
by hardening ferrite.
A lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip
metals following its coil pattern. A departure from longitudinal
flatness. It can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from
metals in the softer temper ranges.
Coiled flat sheet or strip metal - usually in one
continuous piece or length.
A process of impressing images or characters of
the die and punch onto a plane metal surface.
(Hot Dipped Tin Plate) Standard tin plate, with
the lightest commercial tin coat, used for food containers, oil
canning, etc. A higher grade is the best cokes, with special
cokes representing the best of the coke tin variety. For high
qualities and heavier coatings, see (Charcoal Tin Plate).
Creases or Ridges appearing in sheets as parallel
lines transverse to the direction of rolling and generally extending
across the width of the sheet.
A joint between two lengths of metal within a coil
- which is not always visible in the cold reduced product.
Metal strip, made from hot-rolled strip, by rolling
on cold-reduction mills.
Reduction of metal size, usually by rolling or
drawing particularly thickness, while the metal is maintained
at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature
of the metal.
Finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled sheet
or strip with a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance.
Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening
point of the metal to create strain hardening (work-hardening).
Same as cold reduction, except that the working method is limited
to rolling. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of
strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness, strength,
stiffness, ductility and other characteristics known as tempers.
The characteristics of metals that are brittle
at ordinary or low temperatures.
A defect produced during casting, causing an area
in the metal where two portions of the metal in either a molten
or plastic condition have come together but have failed to unite,
fuse, or, blend into a solid mass. (See Lamination)
Plastic deformation, such as rolling, hammering,
drawing, etc., at a temperature sufficiently low to create strain-hardening
(work-hardening). Commonly, the term refers to such deformation
at normal temperatures.
(Chemical Symbol Cb) - Element No. 41 of the periodic
system. Atomic weight 92.91. It is steel gray in color and brilliant
luster. Specific gravity 8.57. Melting point at about 4379°F.
It is used mainly in the production of stabilized austenitic
chromium-nickel steels, also to reduce the air-hardening characteristics
in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type.
A copper-zinc alloy (brass) containing 90% copper
and 10% zinc; used for screws, wire, hardware, etc. Although
termed commercial-bronze it contains no tin. It is
somewhat stronger than copper and has equal or better ductility.
Normally to a ladle analysis of carbon limited
at 0.15 max. A Standard Quality Carbon Steel Sheet.
A casting technique in which the ingot is continuously
solidified while it is being poured, and the length is not determined
by mold dimensions.
Furnace, in which the material being heated moves
steadily through the furnace.
Passing sheet or strip metal continuously through
a series of pickling and washing tanks.
A series of synchronized rolling mill stands in
which coiled flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand)
moves in a straight line and is continuously reduced in thickness
(not width) at each subsequent pass. The finished strip is recoiled
upon leaving the final or finishing pass.
A furnace used for bright annealing into which
specially prepared gases are introduced for the purposes of maintaining
a neutral atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal
and atmosphere takes place.
A furnace in which air is blown through the molten
bath of crude metal or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities.
Stresses develop by uneven contraction or external
constraint of metal during cooling; also those stresses resulting
from localized plastic deformation during cooling and retained.
(Chemical symbol Cu) - Element No. 29 of the periodic
system, atomic weight 63.57. A characteristically reddish metal
of bright luster, highly malleable and ductile and having high
electrical and heat conductivity; melting point 1981°F.;
boiling point 4237°F.; specific gravity 8.94. Universally
used in the pure state as sheet, tube, rod and wire and also
as alloyed by other elements (See Brass and Bronze), as
an alloy with other metals.
(See Oscillated Wound Coils)
Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a
metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents.
The embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure
to a corrosive environment. Such material is usually susceptible
to the intergranular type of corrosion attack.
As a defect. Alternate ridges and furrows. A series
of deep short waves.
The flow or plastic deformation of metals held
for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield
strength. The effect is particularly important if the temperature
of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the
Temperatures at which internal changes or transformations
take place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature.
A temperature range in which an internal change
takes place within a metal. Also termed Transformation Range.
The defective ends of a rolled or forged product
which are cut off and discarded.
(See Luders Lines) This term also applies to transverse
ribs or ripples.
(In rolled or drawn metal) The direction parallel
to the axis of the rolls during rolling. The direction at, right
angles to the direction of rolling or drawing.
Rolling at an angle to the long dimension of the
metal; usually done to increase width.
Increased thickness in the center of metal sheet
or strip as compared with thickness at the edge.
A ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and
clay, or other refractory materials, and used in the melting
of metal. The term is sometimes applied to pots made of cast
iron, cast steel or wrought steel.
(1) A physically homogeneous solid, in which
the atoms , ions, or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional
repetitive pattern. (2) A coherent piece of matter, all parts
of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atoms; in metals,
usually synonymous with grain and crystallite.
Composed of crystals.
The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming
definite positions in a crystal lattice. This is what happens
when a liquid metal solidifies. (Fatigue, the failure of metals
under repeated stresses, is sometimes falsely attributed to crystallization.)
Metallography - (Concerning space lattices) - Body-centered
cubic. Refers to crystal structure.
A type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which
looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the
interior slightly depressed.
(See Olsen Ductility Test)
Surface hardening of an iron-base alloy article
or portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact
with a cyanide salt, followed by quenching.